NAPA provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to adapt to climate change – those for which further delay would increase vulnerability and/or costs at a later stage.

In order to address urgent and immediate adaptation needs from adverse impacts of climate change, Bhutan prepared its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 as part of the LDC Work Programme of the UNFCCC. Under Bhutan’s NAPA nine priority projects requiring immediate attention were identified, but due to fund limitations at that time, only three priority projects were taken up with funding from the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) and other donors. The project titled, ‘Reducing climate change induced risks and vulnerabilities from glacial lake outburst floods in the Punakha, Wangdi and Chamkhar valleys’ and  known popularly as the “GLOF Project”, was a pioneering adaptation project that reduced the risk of GLOF in the Punakha Wangdi Valleys by lowering the level of Thorthormi tsho, setting up an early warning system and building capacity of local communities in disaster risk management.

However, since the preparation of the NAPA in 2006, other climate risks and vulnerabilities (windstorms, cyclones) that were not identified have emerged and made it necessary to revisit the priority activities identified in NAPAincluding a revisit of estimated costs. The revised NAPA was developed through a series of consultation and analysis of the proposed options involving multi sectoral task force from various sectors. Based on these consultations, these are the top 8 priority projects identified in the Bhutan NAPA: Update of Projects and Profiles 2012:

  1. Landslide Management and Flood Prevention
  2. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management- planning disaster management interventions and providing emergency medical services to vulnerable communities
  3. Enhancing National Capacity for Weather Stations and Seasonal Forecasting in Bhutan
  4. Application of Climate Resilient and Environment Friendly Road Construction (EFRC) Nationwide to the National Engineering Institutes
  5. Community based Food Security and Climate Resilience
  6. Flood Protection of Downstream Industrial Area
  7. Rainwater Harvesting and Drought Adaptation
  8. Community-based Forest Fire Management and Prevention.