Multilateral Environmental Agreements

United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a legally binding multilateral environmental agreement that has 196 contracting Parties (Countries) as its members.The CBD entered into force on 29 December 1993. It has 3 main objectives: 
        i.  The conservation of biological diversity
        ii. The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity
        iii. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources
Bhutan became party to and ratified the United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity in 1995 by the 73rd session of the National Assembly. The National Environment Commission Secretariat is a focal agency to CBD. The Convention Text and the detail to CBD can be access here.

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a treaty on the framework for international cooperation concerning the protection of the ozone layer, which was adopted in 1985.  The Vienna Convention was the first convention of any kind to be signed by every country involved, taking effect in 1988 and reaching universal ratification in 2009.  The Convention aimed to promote cooperation among nations by exchanging information on the effects of human activities on the ozone layer. 

Bhutan became the party by accession to the Vienna Convention on 23 August 2004.

Download the convention text here

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is the landmark multilateral environmental agreement that regulates the production and consumption of  man-made chemicals referred to as ozone depleting substances (ODS). The landmark agreement was signed in 1987 and entered into force in 1989. The Protocol is to date the only UN treaty ever that has been ratified every country on Earth - all 198 UN Member States. The Protocol has successfully met its objectives thus far and continues to safeguard the ozone layer.

Bhutan became the party by accession to the Vienna Convention on 23 August 2004.

Download the protocol text here

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol evolves over time in light of new scientific, technical and economic developments, and it continues to be amended and adjusted. The Parties to the Montreal Protocol reached agreement at their 28th Meeting of the Parties on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda to phase-down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Countries agreed to add HFCs to the list of controlled substances, and approved a timeline for their gradual reduction by 80-85 per cent by the late 2040s.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a group of substances introduced as non-ozone depleting alternatives to support the timely phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs are now widespread in air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosols, foams and other products. While these chemicals do not deplete the stratospheric ozone layer, some of them have high global warming potentials. Uncontrolled growth in HFC emissions therefore challenges efforts to keep global temperature rise at or below 2°C this century. Urgent action on HFCs is needed to protect the climate system.
 
Bhutan deposited the Instrument of Ratification with the United Nations Depositary on 27th September 2019.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was established at Rio Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 and entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership with 197 countries that have ratified the Convention. The UNFCCC aims “to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”

Bhutan signed the UNFCCC in 1992 and ratified in 73rd session of the National Assembly and submission of Instrument of Ratification on 25 August 1995.

Find the Convention text HERE
Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on December 11, 1997 and it entered into force on February  16, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets. The Kyoto Protocol is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities”.

Bhutan ratified the Kyoto Protocol on August 26, 2002.

Parties to the Kyoto Protocol adopted an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol by decision 1/CMP.8 in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Kyoto Protocol, at the eighth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) held in Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012.

Find the Protocol text HERE
Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris, France. The purpose of the Paris Agreement, as contained in its Article 2, is to enhance the implementation of the UNFCCC and aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change through; 
(i) a “temperature goal” of limiting the increase in global average temperature to “well below 2°C” in relation to pre-industrial levels with efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C 
(ii) increasing the ability to adapt to adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development
(iii) making financial flows consistent with efforts for low greenhouse gas development and climate resilient development.

Bhutan signed the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016 and ratified on September 19, 2017.

Find the Agreement text HERE
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted in 1989 and it came into force in 1992. It is the most comprehensive global environmental agreement on hazardous wastes and other wastes. The Convention aims to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects resulting from the generation, transboundary movements and management of hazardous wastes and other wastes. The Basel Convention regulates the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and other wastes and obliges its Parties to ensure that such wastes are managed and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.